Monday, May 2, 2011

The Challenges of Moral Formation Today: Zambia as a Case Study

General Introduction
Human beings develop morally as they grow in intelligence and will power. Unfortunately, the abilities of human beings to know the truth and act in accordance with it are often countered by factors that diffuse moral principles; by sociological factors which do not allow people to be fully beings they are meant to be. These factors often contradict the Church’s ways of forming its people morally. The current atmosphere exhibits man’s choices and actions are constantly in confrontation with lifestyles intensely affected by globalization, mass media and other sociological factors yet to be pointed out in this paper. In this pretext to inform and form man’s character and moral reasoning for correct decisions and good acts is absolutely a necessity. This essay tries to present some major challenges of moral formation in particularly a Zambian society.
In order to bring out the factors at play in the moral development of a Zambian, the there are three objectives set. In the first instance we want to argue for the need to form man morally, secondly to demonstrate with particular reference to the Zambia society that certain sociological influences do not help man to be formed morally. Lastly we want to propose ways in which the Church (obviously the Catholic Church is the basis for most of the proposals made - however similar ways may be adapted to many denominations) can help form man bound by negative social influence.
 In order to archive these objectives, the paper is structured into three chapters. The first chapter argues for the need to form man morally. In arguing for the need to form man morally, we shall try to establish the understanding of moral formation and pay particular attention to the place and role of the society in moral formation. The second chapter locates certain sociological factors that influence mans moral development in Zambia. In this chapter we set to show ways in which any society influence people morally and point out certain factors which contradict true Christian moral values. The final and third chapter presents the role of the Church in moral formation. It gives possible strategies to be employed by the Church in order to safe guard people form bad influences in their moral development.

CHAPTER I
MORAL FORMATION
1.0 Introduction
Life forces us to make choices, to rate our actions as bad or good. Remarks such as “that is a good thing to do”, “that is a bad thing to do”, “I don’t think that is right”, “it is forbidden”, “you have no conscience,” – imply some standards of moral judgment. This chapter sets out to argue for the need to be formed into acting morally. As a way of procedure the chapter will begin by giving clarity to the meaning of moral formation and then proceed to show the place and role of the society in moral formation. After that we shall succinctly demonstrate that conscience, an essential constituent of man, needs to be formed. In the final analysis we shall give sufficient reasons for the necessity of moral formation.
1.1 Understanding of the Concepts “Moral” and “Formation”
The term “morality” comes from the Latin word Mos (plural Mores) which means customs or principles or rules of right conduct.[1] “Moral” should be distinguished from its closely related term “ethics”. The latter codify morals into a normative study in such way that human actions can be accessed in relation to an ethical system or code of conduct that binds them in a particular situation or profession.[2] “Formation” is the act of creating or causing to exist. In general formation refers to the operations of bringing things together or shaping or giving a form.[3] “Form” from which “formation” is derived connotes a particular way of being – that gives something its nature.[4] We should therefore understand “moral formation” as the operations of bringing about the principles of right human conduct.
1.1.1 Two Ways of Approaching Moral Formation
There are two ways of speaking about moral formation. According to Fr. Damian Kanuma Musonda, the first way is the development of moral reasoning for making decisions and the second way is the formation of character.[5] These ways are traceable in Richard Gula work; however Gula has prioritized character formation.[6] Just as the application of laws depend a good judge, so do the character and moral reasoning depend on each other. This is why Fr. Kanuma thinks “moral formation should aim at enabling a person to take responsibility for his or her actions.”[7] Moral formation should focus on enabling individuals to implement decisions that moral reason judges correct. Developing moral reason for making decisions and character will help man learn how to make good moral decisions and become a good moral agent. Thus the dangers of prioritizing are serious; can lead to poor the moral judgment and poor moral excellence on one hand or detached decision making and hypocrisy on the other. When ones moral reasoning gets accustomed to acting on good decisions, a good moral character immerges. We become good people by constantly doing good actions.[8] A prudent man appropriates morals in such way that there is never inconsistency between ones moral reasoning and actions. Prudence is fulcrum of all moral virtues, it enables man to judge and do what is morally good in view of one’s sanctification.[9] This moral virtue is required in many aspects of our life: in economics, when purchasing and selling; in recreation, when playing and having leisure; in association, in making friends or joining social groups; at school; towards our own bodies and at church or in religion. In the light of the person seeking to be virtuous, William May understands moral life as “an endeavor, cognitively, to come to know who we are and what we are to do if we to be fully the beings we are meant to be, and conatively, to do what we ourselves come to know we are to do if we are to become fully the beings we are meant to be.”[10] At the core of his understanding are the beliefs that we human beings are in a process of becoming, that our destiny is to be good, and that we have the capacity within to know and to be good and to reach this ultimate end in God.
We must understand that man has the capacity to know and be good because he is an image of God and is called in Christ to be Christ like[11] (Cf., Col. 2.6). In Gen 1:26, a human person is a mirror of Gods image because of his rationality, freedom and capacity for personal relationships.[12] Using the principle of the norm that “Agere sequitur esse/credere”,[13] man real character should follow the dictates proceeding from the fact of his being God’s image. In the same way, Christian life is essentially matter of living the commandments, of responding to God’s love and of neighbor.[14]
Secondly, we have the capacity within to know and to be good and to attain our ultimate end in God because of our cognitive faculties. In line with this Bernard Lonergan regarded moral norms as inherent in the cognitive structure of man. He speaks of the operations as follows:
Move from the field of knowledge into the field of deliberate human acts. So it is that the empirically, intelligently, rationally conscious subject of the self-affirmation becomes a morally self-conscious subject. Man is not only a knower but also a doer; the same intelligent and rational consciousness grounds the doing as well as the knowing […] there exists a self-consistency in knowing and doing.[15]
The norm from the scheme too is consistency between ones moral reasoning and actions. “Self-consciousness enables the person to analyze and study the nature of the act of understanding and willing.”[16] Moral self-consciousness that arises from the cognitive operations is conscience.
            “Conscience” is in the first place not mere reason because its capacities go beyond the limits of reason, especially those pertaining to consequent conscience; secondly it is not identical with the will which is just the actual tending to the known good.[17] Conscience then plays a vital role in evaluating human actions in its threefold dimension, namely: object, intention and circumstance. According the Peschke, conscience “is that moral faculty which tells people subjectively what is good and evil and which manifests their moral obligation to them.”[18] The task of conscience is to move the will in accordance to the known; it admonishes man to act in accordance with his nature. Vatican II relates conscience to God and teaches that,
In the depths of his conscience, man detects a law which he does not impose upon himself, but which hold him to obedience. Always summoning him to love good and avoid evil, the voice of conscience can when necessary speak to his heart a law written by God. To obey it is the very dignity of man; according to it he will be judged […]. In a wonderful manner conscience reveals that law which is fulfilled by love of God and neighbor. [19]
Again Pope John Paul II teaches us that “truth is declared in the law of reason, it is practically and coherently recognized by the judgment of conscience.”[20] Conscience reveals to human beings the meaning of their own humanity, to God and Christ by choosing the good.
Conscience from its Latin origin con-scientia literally means “with knowledge” or “knowing with”.[21] Conscience is thus both personal and communal. In its relational character it opens man not only to God but to others. Relational character of the subjective norm of morality gives us the supportive context to reflect on our actions responsibly in accordance with the truth.[22] In addition conscience is open to the Magisterium[23] because “conscience comes to its full flowering when it implies knowing one’s self and one’s interrelatedness with others in the sight of God, knowing and that we are ‘known’ by God and viewing ourselves and our relationship from that vantage point.”[24] Consequently it is also at the center of inter-subjectivity. Man’s conscience is not an insular but rather open to social influences, to others and God. This is why it is termed an inner voice of God.
1.2 The Place of Society in Moral Formation
When man incorporates into his existence the co-existence man becomes a social being (a collectivity).[25] “To be man is to be a center of society, it is to be in communication with other men.”[26] We have to acknowledge from the onset that the man’s conscience and character is largely a product of the social factors.[27] Character is the social component that involves ways of conduct shaped by the society. Environmental circumstances or social influence counters one’s conscience which is at the core of one’s moral reasoning. Without denying mans abilities to transcend his limitations, man thinks and operates within a certain magnitude. Within this reasoning “African constructionists” see human beings as a product of the community. Generally the Bantus occupying the sub-Saharan region to which Zambia belongs; the Akan people of Ghana and surrounding regions; the Yoruba’s of Nigeria affirms this proposition.[28] Similarly different “psychologists” have ascribed human behavior to the environment.[29] Different Psychologists who attest that personality is by and large a product of ones society include: the socially-oriented psychoanalytic theorists; behaviorists; social cognitive learning theorists and post-modernistic psychologists. Philosophical and Theological existentialism equally appreciates the society as integral condition for human being. For many existentialists, the self can be lost or gained in the everydayness of the world activities. Among the notable existentialists is Martin Heidegger who in his analysis of DaSein[30] makes it explicit that as a being-in-the-world, a person exists as a MitSein (a being-with-others) in the world.[31] Nevertheless, Heidegger sees the ‘self’ as struggling to realize its destiny as it relates.[32] Social influences on human conduct cannot be denied in moral formation from different points of view.
1.2.1 Biblical Assertions of Social Influence
In sacred scriptures the term “society” is depicted as the “world” in which Christians find themselves. In the Old Testament, the prophets Jeremiah and Ezekiel insist on the social influences of sin (Cf., Jer 2:2-9; 16:10-13; Ezek 16:20). In the New Testament Christians are exhorted again and again to not to live according to the norms of the world.[33] For St. Paul the society in so many ways stand in opposition to Christ’s standards (Cf., 1Cor 1:27; 2:12; 3:19, Gal 6: 14) and as such Christians should avoid being influenced by the world (Cf., Rom 12:2). St. James in his epistle warns Christians to guard themselves from the contamination of the world (Cf., Jm 1:27; 4:4). In Johns Gospel the world is condemned because it fails to accept God’s message (Cf., Jn. 12:31; 15:22-24; 15:8-11). Jesus Christ too is very much aware of the impact of social influence on human conduct, he warns his Disciples to keep watch against the influence of the Pharisees and Herodeans (Cf., Mk 8:15). Dispels instead are sent, they like Christ should perfect and better there lives by being witness in their societies (Cf., Jn 18:37; Mk 16:14-18).
1.2.2 Church’s Assertions of Social Influence
The Church also asserts that the person is by and large a product of his social milieu. Vatican II teaches that society aids the development of people towards their destiny, that
it can no be denied that men are often diverted from doing good and spurred toward evil by the social circumstances in which they live and are immersed from their birth. To be sure the disturbances which so frequently occur in the social order result in part from the natural tensions of economic, political, and social forms […] When the structure of affairs is flawed by the consequences of sine, man, already born with a bent toward evil, finds there new inducements to sin, which can not be overcome without strenuous efforts and the assistance of grace.[34]
In this statement the church not only appreciates the society’s formative role, it identifies, economic, political and all social forms as factors in the society that aid, prevent and influence the development of individuals in their pedagogy of morals.
1.3 The Failure to be and the Necessity of Moral Formation
Man has the inherent capacity to act in accordance with divine precepts that are immanent in his very soul by divine disposition (as an image of God). Man as a “knower and doer” is capable of goodness, reasonability, and responsibility with the aid of his conscience. Is it important to speak about the necessity of moral formation with this vantage? Pope John Paul warns against this view, he contends that “conscience is not an infallible judge of our actions; it can make mistakes.[35] While conscience is the competent guide equipped to know man’s destination and moral obligation, it can be erroneous, lax, perplexed, scrupulous and doubtful.[36] Our Catechism states that,
A well formed conscience is upright and truthful. It formulates it judgment according to reason, in conformity with true good willed by the wisdom of the Creator. The education of conscience is indispensable for human beings who are subject to negative influences and tempted to by sin to prefer their own judgment and to reject authoritative teachings.[37]
This teaches us that when conscience is not certain, it fails to conform to the norms of objective truth. In a moral choice “conscience can make either a right judgment in accordance with reason and divine law or, on the contrary, an erroneous judgment that departs from them.”[38] When in error the dignity of conscience is compromised.[39] An erroneous conscience occurs when the person subjective truth does not match with the objective ultimate end of truth or when there no connaturality between man and the true good.[40]
Secondly sinful social structures influence man’s moral reasoning and character. Richard Gula affirms that our moral values and vision is not some chosen as it is inherent from the social world in which we grow and acquire by internalization and socialization.[41] The social world as decisive factor for man’s moral development because ones moral outlook is so much a product of internalization and socialization “The real world in which we struggle to become human is a world, it must be acknowledged, that has been wounded by sin, by man’s failure to respond in trust and love to the words uttered by God.”[42] There is an intense competition between the Christian values and those of the world. The schools, the clubs, the books we read, the television we watch, the computer-internet, the friends we play with, the profession we enter, politics, economy, sports and entertainment to name a few have strong impact on our moral life. Through these activities, the world offers different forms of values which significantly influence human actions and moral reasoning on issues such as divorce, abortion, homosexuality, cheating, war and tyranny. A Christians whose conscience is not well formed in the law of Christ runs at the risk of trading his soul, or of loosing his very own dignity in this “worldly” paradigm of life. In the society to retain and maintain the purity of conscience is a battle, and as such there is need for moral formation. Moral formation is a necessity today in our world of moral uneasiness.
Conclusion
Moral formation changes the criterion of ones decision and character because it develops the individual’s capacity to make good moral judgment in a specific situation about the good course of action. Thus moral development depends primarily on how well informed and formed is ones conscience into the truth. If conscience is not formed it can error, it is not an infallible judge. The world in which we live also forces us to act in the certain ways. It influences our character and moral discernment on the ‘right’ or ‘human’ course of action to take. Thus we should be formed into constantly judging good course of actions through the knowledge of right and wrong, of good and bad.



CHAPTER II
FACTORS INFLUENCING MORAL FORMATION IN ZAMBIA
2.0 Introduction
            Having adopted the development of character and moral reasoning for making decisions as ways of approaching moral formation, we came discover that the need for moral formation is necessity. That man’s conscience is not an infallible judge of our actions; that it can make mistakes especially when it confronts the society. We shall now discuss certain sociological factors in Zambia that influence man morally. This chapter seeks to concretely locate moral formation in the context of the Zambian society by paying particular attention to way social factors affect man morally. Certainly several elements of these factors do not help Zambians to be formed morally. They contradict true Christian values. As such this chapter presupposes the suggestions to be made for the church to help form people in such contexts.
2.1 Ways in which Society Influence Human Conduct
Erick Fromm has identified “assimilation” and “socialization” as ways in which the development of the moral agent (man) is affected by social-cultural conditions. Assimilation is the person’s unique way of experiencing the environment and socialization is the transmission of experiences to a developing person.[43] Socialization is a way of incorporating an individual into the society. It is a chief way in which cultural categories are transferred and many anthropologists calls it “child-raising.”[44]Manipulation” is a third way in which a person is influenced by the society. Manipulation implies “the attempts to influence the process of individual and social development without those affected being entirely conscious of or understanding the process or the aims and methods.”[45] “Assimilation”, “Socialization” and “Manipulation”, are ways in which the society influence man’s moral conduct.
In line with these ways Peschke shows several techniques that can be used in societies to influence human conduct. According to him human conduct is affected by “bad example and demoralization” of people’s good will; by “force” to do evil – such that ‘doing the good excludes the person from the group’; by “distorting and corrupting” the environment which precede man’s existence.’[46] People assimilate bad behaviors from bad models. People become socialized and manipulated by the corrupt environment.[47] Different techniques can be employed as method of influencing the people’s moral development.
2.2 The Zambian Society in the Context of Moral Formation
In order to understand how the Zambian society influences people’s moral development we have understand its history. The first period of Zambian history is the pre-colonial era which denotes the period of “undisturbed” traditional moral norms. In this period each tribe mastered its own morality. This form of morality was replaced, purified and interrupted by the second phase of Zambia’s history called the colonial era. During this period intruders; the white settlers and the missionaries had influence on human conduct, slowly traditional moral values began to be countered. The moral backbone of Zambia today is post-independence era; the period from 1964 to the present; the period in which tribes are unified into a one Zambia; a period modernity. Today’s morality has been shaped by these historical forces, international agreements and globalization.[48] A pure Zambia or Zambian today, free from the influence of any external forces whatsoever, does not exist, despite the desire of some who postulate such for the sake of some idiosyncratic traditional orthodoxy. A Zambian social morality today can not be held in “extreme” apart from the larger whole, such a talk is erroneous for both political and economical reasons.[49] Without prejudice to this statement, we can demonstrate that Zambia as an environment in which individuals exists exhibits its own factors that affect individual’s moral decisions and character. That there some element and factors that do not help Zambians to “become beings they are meant to be” in the sight of God their creator.
2.2.1 Zambian Culture (s)
Culture is definitely the first major factor to consider. Culture pertains to abilities, notions, and forms of behavior persons have acquired as members of society.[50] In more precise way “culture refers to the acquired, cognitive and symbolic aspects of existence.”[51] Cultures teach its siblings moral responsibility.[52] Culture is enshrined in images, symbols and proverbs which embody meaning, values and ideals that shape and govern the society.[53] Steven Kapita Mwewa accepts that concepts in our traditional Zambian languages such as love, justice, and custom; proverbs bordering on respect, generosity, cooperation, work, family life, human rights and values; folksongs sung when hunting, working and in ceremonies; penalties for crimes, all demonstrate the existence of moral values in traditional Zambian culture.[54]
Moral formation is part of culture.[55] The moral education offered by traditional Zambian culture varies from tribe to tribe in values and skills.[56] Holistically initiation ceremonies constitute a major moral educational program for people.[57] Thus within the spectrum of “initiations” is the juxtaposition of traditional moral education. Jesse Mugambi and Nicodemus Kirima have observed this connection between education and initiation in African tradition. They see it as a way in which children gradually character and develop their moral reasoning as growing members of the community.[58] Through initiation rites individuals are taught gender roles; how to talk, dress, work, and think. For instance generally accepted traditional formal dress code for the Zambian women is the “ichitenge” material, this is taught to a young girl.
No culture is infallible and in traditional Zambian culture too there are certain values that do not help man morally. Certain beliefs and rituals permeate immoral acts such as incest and even murder. In traditional Zambian culture “there are number of traditional practices, sayings and taboos that perpetuate gender based violence and gender injustice.”[59] Other practices such as Ubupyani as practiced among the Bemba’s and the Bisa people have direct negative implication for Christian sexual morality in marriage. Ubupyani is rite connected with Marriage; it is a rite of inheritance that goes on when the man or woman loses their spouse.[60] Ubupyani is related to various practices of sexual cleansing. Similarly in some tribes like the Tongas allow polygamy is morally permissible.[61] Traditional Zambian culture allows divorce on account of reasons such as death of children, sterile and infidelity when Christianity promotes the durability of marriage.
In traditional Zambian culture, the hierarchy suggests that “only adults are subjects of rights […] children share in the rights of adults[62] Children are not suppose to quarrel or control adults even when they are wrong, adults are always right they always say the truth. Only adults deserve a dignified burial, a good meal, respect, because they are the proper person per say (muntu in the real sense of the word). In some cases only male adults are considered persons per say. Accordingly children and those outside the scheme have no claims of rights whatsoever. This perpetrates injustices which have direct bearings on the moral development of man. In many circumstances, the overemphasis placed on the common good over individual interest in traditional Zambia culture out rule individuals rights, freedom and autonomy.
In Zambia, the greatest cultural challenge for moral formation can be described as “cultural marketing”. In this paradigm, the first element worthy considering in moral development is the fact that Zambian culture is an amalgamation of the approximately 72 different linguistic groups (tribes). As a result of too many tribes, each is constantly busy selling its own moral values and this makes an atmosphere for the discernment of true moral values difficult for people growing. Diversity makes culture rich, yet it can also negatively lead to the loss of values.[63] Cultural marketing of type has been caused mainly by movements and trade between and among people of different tribes as noted earlier by Burdette. In addition to too many tribes, English has been adopted the only official language in Zambia. Language is a medium of thought and experiences and as such Zambian traditional culture itself open directly to global influences. Through this second type of cultural marketing we have Western infiltration which makes moral discernment and growth for people tedious.
2.2.2 Zambia Education System
Education is the second major factor and challenge of moral formation in Zambia. “Education” here is distinguished from the traditional way of imparting values and life skills; it includes skills of reading, writing and mathematical computation. “Any education system has an in built goal to inform and form its members through certain values and ideals.”[64] Our Zambian education system like any African country is with few modifications a product of the Western education systems through colonialism and missionary activities.[65] Schools began in African by missionaries to promote evangelization and to provide a cultural ‘bridge’ between expatriates and the African masses.[66] The educated have some association with what is foreign; they are those who have assimilated the Western ways of conduct.[67] There has constantly been a danger in interpreting the process of learning as a digression from ones traditional values.[68] A great competition between the traditional culture and what people have learnt about values from alien cultures has been caused largely by education.[69] A similar change in the learning process ha been observed by Mwanakatwe, he states that
In the past there was keener interest in the proper behavior of children at school. In the same ways as our fore fathers accepted responsibility for the proper upbringing of children with on emphasis on “good manners, obedience to elders, hospitality to friends, cooperation in the common task […] today there is not much enthusiasm to provide moral teaching for children.[70]
Change in the pattern of education of values that resent discipline under influences of foreign ideologies promote construed notion of rights and freedom.[71] Formal education as a factor in moral formation has opened up Zambia to new challenges in the pedagogy of morals. Syllabuses and school programs designed under global influences are not wholly morally permitting.
2.2.3 Mass Media and Recreational Facilities
Mass media has effects on moral development and the Church is aware of this fact.[72] It is difficult to exclude, the press, television, radio, from the factors that influence our moral perception, evaluation and decisions.[73] Mass media reflect, reinforce and catalyze dispositions and values in a given society.[74] Mass media like education can drive people to the bad or good actions in its informative and formative role. Mass media over inform people and this is difficult for moral discernment.[75] There is also manipulation in the mass.[76] Peschke states that
the origin of errors, prejudices, false opinions and convictions may lie in deficient education, the influence of bad company, reading of misleading books and papers. Man is challenged to overcome the errors that sway in personal search for truth, to escape the negative influence of those forces which misguide, and to reach views based on sound reasons.[77]
Today there is early exposure to mass media – especially television – it becomes almost a new kind of authority in morals or a kind of parent.[78] Television, newspapers, internet, professional magazines, journals, books and articles suggest new ways that regard the old as outdated. False conviction in mass media bring with them false attitudes. Modeling of violence, self-aggrandizing behavior, fictitious acts appeal and sway children from true and real values.[79] The effects of mass media vary with the sophistication of the audience; with the level of education and the personality of the reader, listener or viewer.
Mass media can be manipulated to promote certain beliefs. Manipulation is possible in such cases as abortion, human rights, freedom and others ethical problems. In the case of promoting abortion, the reports, adverts, documentaries, articles may emphasize the rights of the mother, downgrade those of the unborn child and overlook the rights of the father. At other times mass media use fear or shame to sway men in particular actions.
Leisure and recreation is best way of socialization. Leisure materials such as Art equally influence man. “How manipulative art can be in its effects is can be shown from an example taken from the art of film.”[80] Although there traces of good moral lessons received from movies, such as those from Nigeria which have flooded the Zambian markets today, the large portion of them promote indecency. Because of the “commercial interests”, the predominant film products today are full of raw sex, crass violence, and fiction yielding idolatrous idols and ideas that make it difficult for upright upbringing.[81] Equally Zambia music art has this same capacity, it also has too much of Western influence. Modern game simulation in computer systems also weakens our ability to deal with the world as it is and ourselves as we are. It deters the world of values because they are designed in such a way that they affect people’s moral conceptions by teaching that killing, abortion, stealing, insulting is normal. Other recreational facilities in Zambia are mostly drinking spots. There are more Pubs and Guesthouses to bleed drug abuse, prostitution than they are facilities of leisure that promote opportune occasions for moral development.
2.2.4 Zambia’s Diversified Religious Practices
According to Dellon-Mallone Zambian Humanism is religious based.[82] Morality from this perspective is rooted in the belief of the Super-Being. This is “not restricted” to Christian belief system, it is sought in Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism and non-religious systems of thought.[83] This was promoted by our first president and founder of this nation on the basis of individual’s religious freedom in accordance with the Declaration of Human rights. Since then, Zambia has always appreciated the diversity of religious practices.[84] However good this is, diversity may be confusing. Instead of individuals realizing there ultimate end within such diverse religious moral doctrines, they may fail to see the truth since each religion or church is busy selling its interpretation, meaning and value of life.
2.2.5 Poverty
Finally we turn to what precedes our existence; the basic needs that affect our moral judgment and character. In the system of oppression, religious intolerance, poor conditions of economic and social justice man fails to realize his moral responsibility.[85] In addition “sinful social structures and conditions are sources of these injustices and evil.”[86] In 2005 it was estimated that that “over 80% of Zambians live below the datum line of 1 US dollar per day.”[87] Poverty in Zambian has led to high crimes, prostitution and corruption. Many Zambians live in poor conditions, within which “prostitution” and “theft” are regarded as means of survival never as immoral acts. Our economic and health resources tend to often favor the rich.[88] Poverty in Zambian has an immense effect on the moral reasoning and character building of its people because of the lack of the basic needs that foster and shape mans existence.
2.4 Conclusion
Moral challenges in Zambia results from an increase in the “marketing” of values from cultural, education, media, economics, politics, diversity of religion and globalization. This situation demands the gradual emancipation of the human person for moral formation to take place. Man alone is often too weak to break the outrageous influence of these factors. In this light the Catholic Church has an important role to play as the custodian of truth and morals.[89] The Church should enter into a constructive dialogue with the factors that challenge moral formation in Zambia and promote ideas and values for building character and moral reasoning.


CHAPTER III
THE CHURCH’S ROLE IN MORAL FORMATION
3.0 Introduction
The Catholic Church has always taken keen interest in moral formation. She has always promoted true Christian values in different dimensions of man’s life. However, the social situation in Zambia reveals that much still needs to be done for man to grow morally. Sociological factors influence man’s moral character and reasoning. This chapter seeks to propose possible ways in which the Church can help form man who is usurped by the sociological factors.
3.1 The Church’s Duty in Today’s Moral Formation
The Catechism emphasizes that the Catholic Church through the Magisterium has the God-given authority and responsibility to teach the saving truths of faith and morals.[90] It also teaches the infallibility of the Church doctrines on faith and morals.[91] The catechism appeals to Christian’s duty to be formed to the truths proclaimed by the Church because the Church is their mother and Teacher.[92] With today’s massive disagreement between what is taught by the Church and what is held as morally valid by different social factors, the Church has entered a critical time in the moral formation of its members. Consequently for people to know “without any doubt what ought to be done and avoided, a divinely given law is needed, one that can not err.”[93] A Morality which is founded on God’s law; in the commandments and Gospels values and on which natural, is founded is needed. Within the social context which cripples man’s efforts to know and do the truth, the Church has a duty to ensure that people are formed morally.
What are called for then are pastoral strategies for enabling sociological factors with divine law, for teaching people skills of moral discernment and enhancing moral development and action to rise above the social influences that affect man’s moral development. The church should ensure that culture is evangelized and that people are catechized into objective moral principles. The Church must reinforce social groups based on true Christian beliefs in which individual can be socialized and grow morally. Mass media should be regulated and monitored. In regulating mass media, there is need to have moral guardians in both schools and homes. There is also need for the Catholic Church to speak against all ideals that curtail the process of moral development, from either mushrooming churches or different philosophical positions. People need to be helped in distinguishing the voices of moral truth from those of propaganda, political ideology or personal bias in order for moral formation to be possible. Lastly the Church social teachings and charitable activities must strive to alleviate poverty.
3.1.1 Evangelization of Culture
            Culture has been described as the basic existential condition in which individuals develop and grow and that it shapes mans moral development and influences his conduct. Cultural factors that children encounter, for better or for worse, influences their moral growth. A proper up-bringing is impossible in the absence of a morally adequate cultural environment. In terms of Christian morality no culture is infallible. “Jesus is the foundation of Christian moral life.”[94] Jesus must be made present to the people. Consequently evangelization must bring the power of the Gospel values in the very heart of culture.[95] Evangelization of culture should be inculturation.[96] Inculturation denotes “the presentation and re-expression of the Gospel in forms of and terms of proper to a culture.”[97] Evangelization of culture should also liberate man from impure cultural infringements.[98] The Church has always to play a major role in the liberation of people from bad cultural influence.
The Church should enrich cultures by helping them to go beyond the defective features in them, and by communicating to their legitimate values the fullness of Christ.[99] In the process, efforts need to be made in scrutinizing cultural tenets that do not promote Christian moral values while preserving positive cultural practices. There should be a two way process, namely transmission and assimilation (give and take). As matter of fact “religious institute must study how best these ascetical and contemplative traditions may be assimilated into Christian religious life.”[100] The Church should see and hold in great esteem the moral values proper to culture as providential foundations.[101] Culture should open a way for Christian moral formation.  However, these efforts need not compromise the spreading of real Gospel values. Pope John Paul II teaches that the Gospel should rectify cultural elements and not vice versa.[102]
The Church’s responsibility cannot be adequately discharged apart from the efforts of all Bishops, Priest, the Religious, Lay catechists, Parishes, Family, and Catholic institutions should all put their efforts to refining culture with Gospel values for moral development. Christian initiation is this regard should include assimilation of good cultural practices. Catechetical programs can adequately serves as means of evangelizing culture. Catechesis seeks to develop, advance and nourish the faithful with Christian moral values.[103]  Through Catechesis the Church can enable people to enter into a truly Christian life.[104] Catechesis ought to be encouraged and it should be done properly. It should be adapted to all in their social needs. Thus the church should ensure that people are properly catechized through suitable pedagogical methods.
3.1.2 Regulation of Mass Media
            The Second Vatican Council admonishes the public to take interest in exerting what influence television and radio has for public good.[105] The all of mass media needs to be regulated for the public good and smooth permeability of moral development. The Church should take a lead in speaking against systems, programs and information that impose or manipulate moral notions and eliminate the good.[106] The Church should encourage artist to use mass media in their creative work responsibly.[107] The Church should inform writers, readers and those involved in mass media of their duty to promote human and Christian values. It should ensure that
children are protected in their formative years against programs with a highly dramatic effect on their life, secondly oblige the owners or directors of the mass media not to prevent programs of good quality; third, to protect recipients from inundation by commercials, to the damage of desirable programs; fourth to guarantee the rights of minorities (ethnic, religious, cultural); fifth to protect persons and organizations against slander[108]
This calls for sensitization on the part of the Church, and on the part of Christian parents, guardians, and teachers, at home and in schools it calls for action to ensure that mass media is used exclusively for the good.
3.1.3 Reinforcing Christian Marriages and Family
Closely connect with guarding mass media are the efforts to reinforce and establish Christian families. Regulation of mass media and moral formation in general begins within the basic unit of the society which is the family. According to the second Vatican council, marriage is the foundation of the family.[109] “The family is the natural school of love and thus is essential to enabling human persons to achieve their fulfillment of fundamental dignity.”[110]  It is in the family that man is first schooled into social living and Christian values.[111] Guardian or parents in the family are first moral guardians to the children. The success of moral formation largely depends on the family.[112] The family is the basic foundation of discipline and moral development. At the central of the good family is the sacrament of matrimony. Marriage in the light of total family structure is for the exigencies of education and social security.[113] This is why the Second Vatican Council sees the institution of marriage as directed at procreation and education of children.[114] Christian marriages or families are solid foundation of Christian values.
The Church should safeguard and promote marriage against threats such as polygamy, divorces, impact of mass media and in particular internet social networks which keep spouses apart and finally from poverty and HIV/AIDs. The Church through the aid of special groups and programs can constantly educate people about the importance of Marriage, Through specials groups such Marriage Encounter and Christian adopted groups known as Banachimbusa the Church can promote certain cultural practices that enable marriage to be durable reinforce them with catechesis and liturgical practices.[115] For instance “engagement process” can be an opportunity of catechizing people about the sacrament of marriage.
3.1.4 Reinforcing Small Christian Communities and Associations
Conscience is not simply the isolated individual but as we have seen it is rather open to the community in listening to the voice of God.[116] Conscience cannot be left alone; it is supposed interact since truth is not sought in isolation. Man depends on a good community for their moral development; a community in which he must be socialized. Without the community man in his subjective standards can error. Small Christian community is archetypal social group for moral development. The Christian community is constituted of believers, it provides an immediate life context within which one can practice and grow in their faith. “Small Christian Communities are means by which the Church is brought down to the daily life and concerns of people to where they actually live.”[117] “Small communities also seem to be the most effective means of making the Gospel message truly relevant to African cultures and traditions.”[118] Small Christian communities also open up oneself to correction, dialogue and criticism.
Small Christians needs to be reinforced so as to provide a social context in which Christians can grow in faith and moral uprightness. Sharing of the moral principles founded on the law of Christ in the context of such a social group is essential for man’s moral formation. Apart from small Christian communities, people need to be encouraged to join other Christian associations such as Alter Boys Club, Catholic Women’s League and St. Joseph Men’s Association. Furthermore, the Church should encourage and promote more Christian gatherings.
3.1.5 Apostolate in Education Centers
While is it is right that conscience is the moral faculty, all intellectual faculties deepen its power.[119] Man has to be educated to be attentive, judicious, reasonable and responsible. Moral growth depends on education; through the studies of objective morality. The Catholic Church has always used learning institutions in Zambia and elsewhere for moral conversion. Schools and other learning institutions which are supported by the Church have always promoted Christian values. Today, there has been a change in the staff and running of many education centers because of the increase in professional autonomy, state control through the Ministry of Education and global factors.[120]  It cannot be denied that schools and all learning institutions are viable environments for forming people morally.
The church can use learning institutions today as centers of moral formation by taking a keen interest in the whole learning process. The church can promote good moral values in learning institutes through religious education and Christian associations. Religious instructions should form the basis of ethical values.[121] The church can form students in learning institution not under its direct care through workshops which promote good behavior. Workshops should be designed is such a way that they combat alcohol abuse, drug abuse, and bad sexual behaviors in education centers. In this regard the Church can also reach out to different learning institutions by ensuring that syllabuses and programs in schools permit moral growth.  School programs and syllabus have implication for moral growth of learners. In schools run by Catholic this should be intensified and complemented by homilies, liturgical celebrations and theological reflections.[122] Lay apostolate should also be encourage in schools, Catholic Christians working in different education centers should ensure that learning institutes are means of moral education.
3.1.6 Efforts to Combat False Moral Teachings
True human ethics is identical to Christian ethics since it is based on natural law.[123] Natural law itself is a participatory law in the divine law.[124] As O’Connell teaches, the Catholic Church does not have unique or specific moral obligations, but rather that it seeks to promote the true moral life of human beings.[125] The Church’s objective is not confined to the promotion of some unique moral obligation, but rather true human moral values. In this way the Church should combat all false moral teachings in other ecclesial communities who share its objective of promoting true moral values. The Church should monitor that this truth is not compromised even among non-Christian religions. The task of monitoring of moral ideals extend to all sources of moral ideals, it includes mass media which we have already discussed, politics, economics and all philosophies behind human actions. In the context of mushrooming churches the church should encourage ecumenical dialogues. For true Christian moral formation to take place there must be more efforts that bring about interreligious dialogues. People should also be educated with profound knowledge of factors that might prevent them being beings they are meat to be.
3.1.7 Alleviating Poverty
Economics has important and beneficial repercussions for man’s striving to meet the moral deepest maturity. Economy can not be shielded from morality.[126] Poor economy encourages (poverty) always has moral implications on man’s moral life. The consequences of shortage of food, hunger even when social resources are enough is are inevitable today. “Economy needs ethics in order to function properly – but no any ethics whatsoever, but the ethics which is people centered.”[127] On this subject, the application of Church’s social teaching can make a specific contribution since is based on the dignity of the man. Related to problems of poverty are environmental concerns and agriculture. People need to be aware that the treatment they give the environment reciprocates to them.[128] The Church should through its evangelization address the need for nations to supply its citizens with the basic necessities for their livelihood. For man’s moral development to be effective, the Church must address the issue of poverty by promoting social justice; ensuring just distribution of properties, equality and practices which are environmental friendly. The church can advocate for solidarity thorough through journals, workshops, and mass media. Through its charitable works, the church can help liberate man in his enslaved situation to permit moral development.
3.2 Conclusion
Christian life is an ideal because it requires determination and life long efforts in the face of so many sociological factors. It cannot be attained through personal efforts, it requires the efforts of others, and God grace. In fact attaining moral growth is simply a Christian call (Cf., Mt 5:450. Moral growth is realistic and capable of being achieved, this last chapter we have seen the ways in which the Church can help man to know and do the truth amidst sinful conditions. In brief for man to develop morally his immediate environment which culture must be evangelized. Mass media need to be regulated. There must be well formed Christian families and communities in which individuals can grow. Other efforts in promoting Christian way of life should be directed towards education, alleviation of poverty and combat of false moral ideals. Hence this chapter alleviates man to the possibility of being formed morally through the Church’s efforts.


General Conclusion
Moral formation primarily consists in developing man’s character and moral reasoning (conscience) for good decision making. It implies cultivating ones intellectual faculties’ as well training an individual to be constantly disposed to the good. It requires guidance and calls for grace of God for its attainment. A good moral character is what the virtuous are for no single good action that can be performed may be termed a character. In addition character and moral reasoning are always open to the public; they are both to great extent products of the social influences. Social influences deter man’s moral reasoning and character. And as such moral development depends primarily on how well informed and formed is ones conscience into the truth. If conscience is not formed it can error, it is not an infallible judge. Furthermore, it depends on how morally permitting are one’s environmental factors.
We have observed how values from culture, education, media, economics, politics, diversified religious practices and globalization challenge moral formation in Zambia. How a culture which is not evangelized it can err and consequently influence people badly. How mass media and other recreational facilities if not regulated and supported by a Christian family and community can morally derail people. How false moral teachings, education and poverty can sway individuals from the Christian way of life. In brief, all sociological factors which have a decisive effect on our behavior should be tuned to the law of God in order promote human’s abilities to be a being he is meant to be. Certainly with so many factors surrounding moral formation, we can say man demands a kind emancipation in order to become the being he is meant to be. Man alone is often too weak to break the outrageous influence and the society, Church should aid man in moral formation. The Church should promote ideas and values for building a Christian character and conscience. Today the Church needs strategized means to achieve such goals, in particular strategies that are structured and designed in such a way that they counter the social factors that dehumanize man. The church should also be cautious, critical in the face of moral ideals that man faces today
Lastly, all efforts that are carried by the Church to combat bad social influences should be grace filled. Without God grace it would be impossible for the Church to form or lead its people to their moral end. Even though man can through capabilities be directed to know and do the truth amidst sinful conditions, even though all the proposed strategies could be put in place, without the understanding the moral growth is a calling from God, it can not be attained. Moral development is itself a calling from God to which man through his daily struggles respond.

Bibliography
References for the Church Documents
The Catechism of the Catholic Church, Revised Edition, Kenya, Paulines Publications Africa, 2001.
General Directory for Catechesis, Edited by the Congregation for the Clergy, Paulines Publications Africa, Nairobi, 1998.
 “Communications: Decree on the Instruments of Social Communications (Inter Mirifica)” in The Documents of the Vatican Council II, ABBOT, Walter M., ed., Translated by GALLAGHER, Joseph, London, Geoffrey Chapman, 1966.
“The Church Today: The Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World (Gaudium Et Spes)” in The Documents of the Vatican Council II.
POPE BENEDICT XVI. Charity in Truth  (Caritatis in Veritate): Encyclical Letter on the Integral  Human Development, Kenya: Paulines Publications Africa, 2009.
POPE JOHN PAUL II. The Splendor of Truth (Veritatis Splendor): Encyclical Letter of Pope John Paul II, Kenya: St. Paul Publications-Africa, 1993.
POPE JOHN PAUL II. Catechesis in Our Time (Catechesi Tradendae ): Apostolic Exhortation, Unites States of America: St. Paul Books, 1979.
POPE JOHN PAUL II. Fides et Ratio, Vatican City: Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1998.
Message of the Amecea Bishops from the 7th Plenary Assembly in Zomba, Malawi, August 1979, Available Online at: http://www.amecea.org/message-7.htm, Accessed on 28th March 2011.
DUPUIS, Jacques, ed. The Christian Faith: Doctrinal Documents of the Catholic Church, 6th Revised Edition, Bangalore: Theological Publications in India, 1996.

Reference for Books
ABRAHAM, W. E. The Mind of Africa, London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1962.
AUMANN, Jordan. Spiritual Theology, London: Sheed & Ward, 1980.
BOHR, David. Catholic Moral Tradition: In Christ, A New Creation, Huntington: Our Sunday Visitor, Inc., 1990.
BOCKLE Franz ed. The Manipulated Man, New York: Herder and Herder, 1971, 7.
BURDETTE Marcia M., Zambia between Two Worlds, London: Westview Press, 1988.
CARMODY, Brendan P. Conversion and Jesuit Schooling Zambia, The Netherlands: E.J Brill, 1992.
CHIGONA Gerald. UMunthu Theology: Path of Integral Human Liberation rooted in Jesus of Nazareth, Malawi: Montfort Media, 2002.
D-MALLONE Clive. Zambian Humanism, Religion and Social Morality, Ndola: Mission Press, 1989.
ERIKSEN Thomas H. Small Places Large Issues: An Introduction to Social Cultural Anthropology, London: Pluto Press, 1995.
FROMM, Erick, Man for Himself: An Inquiry in the Psychology of Ethics, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1949.
GULA Richard. Reason Informed by Faith: Foundations of Catholic Morality, New York: Paulist Press, 1989.
HEIDEGGER M., Being and Time, Trans., J. MACQUARRIE – E. ROBINSON, Basil Blackwell Publishers, UK 1962.
HENNESSY, Thomas C., ed., Values and Moral Development, New York, Paulist, 1979.
HARRING Bernard, Free and Faithful in Christ: Moral Theology for Priests and Laity, Vol.2, Middlegreen: St. Paul Publications, 1979.
LLOYD, P. C. Africa in Social Change: Changing Traditional Societies in the Modern World, England: Penguin Books, 1967.
LONERGAN, Bernard.  Collected Works of Bernard Lonergan: Insight A Study of Human Understanding, Edited by CROWE, Frederick E. & DORAM Robert M., Toronto: Lonergan Research Institute, 1992.
MAY, William E. An Introduction to Moral Theology, 2nd Edition, Huntington, Our Sunday Visitor Publishing Division, 2003.
MAY, William E., Becoming Human: An Invitation to Christian Ethics, Dayton, Pflaum Publishing, 1975.
MAGAMBI, J. N. Christian Theology and Social Reconstruction, Kenya, Acton Publishers, 2003.
MUGAMBI, Jesse & KIRIMA, Nicodemus, African Heritage, Nairobi, Oxford University Press,1976.
MUSONDA, Damian K. The Meaning and Value of Life among the Bisa and Christian Morality: Dissertatio Ad Doctoratum in Theologia Morali Consequendum, Romae: Preases Academiae Alfonsiane, 2006
MWANAKATWE J. M., The Growth of Education in Zambia Since Independence, Lusaka: Oxford University Press, 1986.
MWEWA, Steven K. Traditional Zambian Eschatology and Ethics Confronting the Advent of Christianity: Dissertation Presented at the Theological Faculty of the University of Innsbruck for the Degree of Doctor of Theology, Switzerland: University of Innsbruck Press, 1977.
O’CONNELL, Timothy, E., Principles for a Catholic Morality, San Francisco: Herder & Row Publishers, 1976
PESCHKE, Karl H., Christian Ethics: General Moral Theology in the Light of Vatican II, Vol.1, Bangalore, Theological Publication in India, 1993.
REICHMANN James B., Philosophy of the Human Person, Chicago: Loyal Press, 1985.
SHORTER, Alyward. Evangelization and Culture, London: Geoffrey Chapman, 1994.
TITUS, Harold. H. Living Issues in Philosophy, 2nd Edition, New York: American Book Co., 1953.

References for Articles
Educating the Nation: The Strategic Framework for Implementation of Education for All, Lusaka: Zambia, Education Sector Ministries, 2005.
FENZA: A Catholic Resource Center on Faith and Culture in Zambia, Available Online at: http://www.fenza.org/docs/ben/changing_face.pdf, Accessed on 15th April 2011.
HARRING, Bernard. “Reciprocity of Conscience: A Key Concept in Moral Theology” in History and Conscience: Studies in honor of Sean O’Riordan CScR, edited by GALLAGHER Raphael & McCONVERY Brendan, Dublin,  Gill and Macmillan, 1989.
GARRETT, Thomas M. “Manipulation and Mass Media” in The Manipulated Man, edited by Franz BOCKLE, New York: Herder and Herder, 1971.
Gender Based Violence Training Manual for the Clergy, Kitwe: Mindolo Ecumenical Foundation, 2010.
MUSHARHAMINA, Mulango Gua Cikala, Traditional African Marriages and Christian Marriages, Trans., BRAHOTTI, Joseph, Uganda, St. Paul Publications Africa, 1981.
MCKECHNIE, Jean L., ed. Webster New Universal Unabridged Dictionary, Deluxe Edition, New York, Simon & Shuster, 1983.
SMITH, Janet, E. “John Paul II and the Family: The Family; A Communion of Persons,” in A Celebration of the Thought of John Paul II: On the Occasion of the Papal Visit to St. Louis, edited by BEABOUT, Gregory R., St. Louis: Saint Louis University Press, 1998.
VILJOEN, H., WEYER, W., et al. Personology: From Individual to Ecosystem, Sandown: Heinemann, 2003.

Biblical References
The African Bible, Kenya: Paulines Publications Africa, 1999.


[1] Cf., MCKECHNIE, Jean L., (ed.), “Moral” in Webster New Universal Unabridged Dictionary, Deluxe Edition, New York, Simon & Shuster, 1983, 1168.
[2] Cf., TITUS, Harold. H., Living Issues in Philosophy, 2nd Edition, New York, American Book Co., 1953, 367.
[3] Cf., MCKECHNIE, Jean L., (ed.), “Formation” in Webster New Universal Unabridged Dictionary, 721.
[4] Cf., “Form” in Ibid., 720.
[5] Cf., MUSONDA, Damian K.,: Dissertatio Ad Doctoratum in Theologia Morali Consequendum, Romae, Preases Academiae Alfonsiane, 2006, 185-186.
[6] Cf., GULA Richard, Reason Informed by Faith: Foundations of Catholic Morality, New York, Paulist Press, 1989, 136-150.
[7] MUSONDA, Damian K, The Meaning and Value of Life among the Bisa and Christian Morality, 186.
[8] The meaning of “good”, has recourse to the sense employed by William May; “beings we are meant to be.”
[9] Cf., AUMANN, Jordan, Spiritual Theology, London, Sheed & Ward, 1980, 277.
[10] MAY, William E. An Introduction to Moral Theology, 2nd Edition, Huntington, Our Sunday Visitor Publishing Division, 2003, 23.
[11] Cf., MAY, William E. An Introduction to Moral Theology, 25.
[12] Cf., BOHR, David. Catholic Moral Tradition: In Christ, A New Creation, Huntington, Our Sunday Visitor, Inc., 1990, 74.
[13] Agere sequitur esse/credere is a Latin expression commonly used by Thomist Moral Theologians to affirm the affinity between the nature of the thing and its actions. It literally means action follows being. David employs to mean to mean that “what one does follows upon what is.” Cf., BOHR, David. Catholic Moral Tradition, 66.
[14] Cf., Ibid.,16.
[15] LONERGAN, Bernard Collected Works of Bernard Lonergan: Insight A Study of Human Understanding,Edited by CROWE, Frederick E. & DORAM Robert M., Toronto, Lonergan Research Institute, 1992, 622.
[16] REICHMANN James B., Philosophy of the Human Person, Chicago, Loyal Press, 1985, 223.
[17] Cf., PESCHKE, Karl H., Christian Ethics: General Moral Theology in the Light of Vatican II, Vol.1, Bangalore, Theological Publication in India, 205.
[18] Ibid., 203.
[19] “The Church Today: The Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World (Gaudium Et Spes)” in The Documents of the Second Vatican Council II, ABBOT, Walter M., ed., Translated by GALLAGHER, Joseph, London, Geoffrey Chapman, 1966,  #16.
[20] JOHN PAUL II, The Splendor of Truth (Veritatis Splendor), # 61.
[21] MAY, William E., Becoming Human: An Invitation to Christian Ethics, Dayton, Pflaum Publishing, 1975,  65.
[22] Cf., MAY, William, Becoming Human, p. 65.
[23] Cf., POPE JOHN PAUL II, The Splendor of Truth (Veritatis Splendor): Encyclical Letter of Pope John Paul II, Kenya, St. Paul Publications-Africa, 1993, #64.
[24] HARRING, Bernard, “Reciprocity of Conscience: A Key Concept in Moral Theology” in History and Conscience: Studies in honor of Sean O’Riordan CScR, edited by GALLAGHER Raphael & McCONVERY Brendan, Dublin,  Gill and Macmillan, 1989, 60.
[25] Cf., MAY, William E., Becoming Human, p.vi.
[26] Ibid., 9-10.
[27] Cf., FROMM Erick, Man for Himself: An inquiry into the Psychology of Ethics, London, Routeldge & Kegan Paul, 1949, 52.
[28] See Mbiti’s postulation of the Maxim: ‘I am, because we are; and since we are, there I am’ in African Religion and Philosophy; Augustine Shutte’s use of the Xhosa proverb “umuntu ngumuntu ngabantu” in Philosophy for Africa; Bishop Thaddeus Ruwa’ichi analysis of collective existence among the Bantu  in Constitution of Muntu; Gyekyes exposition of the Akan communal life and references to proverbs such as “when a person descends from heaven, he descend into a human society,” in An essay on African Philosophical Thinking; Menkiti’s thought in Person and Community in African Thought;  Ggadensin conception of the community as source of moral norms for the person (enyani) in African Philosophy: Traditional Yoruba Philosophy all demonstrate this fact.
[29] Cf., VILJOEN, H., WEYER, W., et al., Personology: From Individual to Ecosystem, Sandown, Heinemann, 2003. Parts II, III &V.
[30] DaSein a German term meaning ‘being there’ refers to the ‘existent being’ in English.
[31] Cf., HEIDEGGER M., Being and Time, Trans., J. MACQUARRIE – E. ROBINSON, Basil Blackwell Publishers, UK 1962, 68.
[32] Cf., Ibid., 150.
[33] Cf., PESCHKE Karl H., Christian, 307.
[34] “The Church Today: Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World (Gaudium Et Spes)” in The Documents of the Vatican II, #25.
[35] JOHN PAUL II, The Splendor of Truth (Veritatis Splendor), #62.
[36] Cf., PESCHKE Karl H., Christian Ethics, 1993, 223-231.
[37] The Catechism of the Catholic Church , Revised Edition, Kenya, Paulines Publications Africa, 2001, # 1783.
[38] Ibid., #1799
[39] Cf., JOHN PAUL II, The Splendor of Truth (Veritatis Splendor), #63.
[40] Cf., Ibid., #64.
[41] Cf., GULA Richard, Reason informed by Faith, 142.
[42] MAY, William E., Becoming Human,16.
[43] Cf., FROMM, Erick, Man for Himself: An Inquiry in the Psychology of Ethics, London, Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1949, 59.
[44] ERIKSEN Thomas H., Small Places Large Issues: An Introduction to Social Cultural Anthropology, London, Pluto Press, 1995, 50.
[45] BOCKLE Franz ed., The Manipulated Man, Herder and Herder, New York, 1971, 7.
[46] Cf., PESCHKE Karl H., Christian Ethics, 308-309.
[47] Cf., HARRING Bernard, Free and Faithful in Christ: Moral Theology for Priests and Laity, Vol.2, Middlegreen, St. Paul Publications, 1979, 180ff.
[48] Zambia is part of the UN, Commonwealth, COMESA, SADC and other political or social organization and and affiliations which have a decisive political, economical as well as moral influence on its people.
[49] Speaking about the Zambian society today Marcia M. Burdette says that, the whole society is in transition from a more rural life to a more urban one. Although the worlds themselves seem bewilderingly different, people circulate between them, making major adjustments in their behavior and expectations. Zambians are very mobile people, and the culture and societies in town and the villages are inextricably interlinked. Coming to town does not mean a total rejection of rural life or relatives left on the land. Nor does dwelling in the agricultural areas mean living as one’s ancestors did, [today telephones are everywhere] abandoning urban values and Western ideas. Colonial rule, schools, Christianity, wage labor, and cash crops have introduced changes in the villages as well as cities. Zambian society today reflects a mixture of the old and the new, indigenous and foreign cultures. Eventually a new culture with its own values and behavior will emerge [it has], but now people must reformulate roles and expectations and are often unsure of the future. The social and personal dislocation implicit in such a rapid cultural transformation is difficult for people at all social-economic levels. The confusion creates tensions for everyone and problems for the government. Equally, conflicting cultures allow exciting and energetic social innovations, especially by the young.  Cf., BURDETTE Marcia M., Zambia between Two Worlds, London, Westview Press, 1988, 34.
[50] Cf., ERIKSEN Thomas H., Small Places Large Issues, 9.
[51] Ibid., 9.
[52]. Cf., ERIKSEN Thomas H, Small Places Large Issues, 52-53.
[53] Cf., CHIGONA Gerald, UMunthu Theology: Path of Integral Human Liberation rooted in Jesus of Nazareth, Malawi, Montfort Media, 2002, 41.
[54] For example word “Conduct” in Bemba is imibele/imikale/imisango Sig. Umusango; (Chewa )
makhalidwe  or sig. kalidwe; (Lozi) Mukwa; (Tonga) michito. these together with others are not arbitrary or accidental in our Zambian culture. Cf., MWEWA, Steven K., Traditional Zambian Eschatology and Ethics Confronting the Advent of Christianity: Dissertation Presented at the Theological Faculty of the University of Innsbruck for the Degree of Doctor of Theology, Switzerland, University of Innsbruck Press, 1977, pp. 124ff.
[55] Moral formation forms an essential part of all education among tribes in Zambia. With reference to the Bisa D. Kanuma Musonda believes that formation of character among the Bisa is one of the main aims of moral formation. Through moral education the individual is taught the duties, responsibilities that s/he has towards maintaining and enhancing the common life of the community. In this context personal responsibility and individual creativity are often stressed and encouraged. Cf., MUSONDA, Damian K., The Meaning and Value of Life among the Bisa and Christian Morality: Dissertatio Ad Doctoratum in Theologia Morali Consequendum, Romae, Preases Academiae Alfonsiane, 2006, pp. 135-136.
[56] Cf., MWANAKATWE J. M., The Growth of Education in Zambia Since Independence, Lusaka, Oxford University Press, 1986, 1.
[57] Cf., CHIGONA Gerald, Umunthu Theology, 42.
[58] Cf., MUGAMBI, Jesse & KIRIMA, Nicodemus, African Heritage, Nairobi, Oxford University Press,1976, 28.
[59] Gender Based Violence Training Manual for the Clergy, Kitwe, Mindolo Ecumenical Foundation, 2010, 27.
[60] Cf., MUSONDA, Damian K., The Meaning and Value of Life among the Bisa and Christian Morality, 71-72.
[61] Cf., CARMODY, Brendan P., Conversion and Jesuit Schooling Zambia, The Netherlands, E.J Brill, 1992, 135
[62] MUSONDA, Damian, K., The Meaning and Value of Life among the Bisa and Christian Morality, 130.
[63] Cf., “The Church Today: Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World (Gaudium Et Spes)” in The Documents of Vatican II, # 56.
[64] CHIGONA Gerald, Umunthu Theology, 41.
[65] Cf., MWANAKATWE, J. M., The Growth of Education in Zambia, 8ff.
[66] Cf., LLOYD, P. C., Africa in Social Change: Changing Traditional Societies in the Modern World, Penguin Books, England 1967, 78-79. Zambia made a single modification of the purposes of education for cultural reasons and expectations to those set by the International Commission on Education in the 21st Century. Cf., Educating the Nation: Strategic Framework for Implementation of Education for All, Zambia, Education Sector Ministries, 2005, 7
[67] Cf., LLYOD, P. C., Africa in Social Change, 125-153.
[68] Mugambi believes that at the levels of morality, the missionary and colonial enterprise has inculcated in African people a certain attitude; that their traditions are primitive or barbaric in contrast with theirs which are civilized and advanced. Cf., J. N. MAGAMBI Christian Theology and Social Reconstruction, Kenya, Acton Publishers, 2003, 50-51.
[69] Cf., ABRAHAM, W. E., The Mind of Africa, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London, 1962, 35-36.
[70] MWANAKATWE J. M., The Growth of Education in Zambia, 225.
[71] This has been promoted under the umbrella of “Universal Declaration of Human Rights” adopted by United Nations in 1948. At this pretext of this student’s claim rights in immoral acts as such Abortion, Expressions such as Riots, and sometimes even in Drugs and Alcohol Abuse.
[72] Cf., “The Decree on the Instrument of Social Communions (Inter Mirifica)” in The Documents of the Vatican II, #1, 3, 4,5ff.
[73] Cf., GARRETT, Thomas M., “Manipulation and Mass Media” in The Manipulated Man, Franz BOCKLE ed., New York, Herder and Herder, 1971. 55.
[74] Cf., Ibid, 58.
[75] Cf., HARRING, Bernard, Free and Faithful in Christ, Vol.2, 170.
[76] Cf., Ibid, p. 181.
[77] PESCHKE, Karl H., Christian Ethics, 254.
[78] Cf., HARRING, Bernard, Free and Faithful in Christ: Moral Theology for Priests and Laity, Vol.2, 169.
[79] Cf., HENNESSY, Thomas C., ed., Values and Moral Development, New York, Paulist, 1979, 30-31.
[80] BOCKLE Franz ed., The Manipulated Man,19.
[81] Cf., HARRING Bernard, Free and Faithful in Christ, Vol.2. 174.
[82] Cf., D-MALLONE Clive, Zambian Humanism, Religion and Social Morality, Ndola, Mission Press, 1989, 19.
[83] Cf., Ibid.,19-20
[84] Several Researches conducted by FENZA in Zambia demonstrate this opinion: A report of the research on Churches in Balueni by UDELHOVEN Bernard last year (2010) reveal that since 1990s churches (under different terms such as ministries and fellowship) have become even more numerous than ever (mushrooming); each with its diverse theology and ideals to live by. This sets objective moral values in jeopardy. Morally speaking there exist challenges in as much as pluralism tend to divide, subjectivism or relativism. The question in this context is: What are true religious moral values for moral formation in Zambia today? Cf., FENZA: A Catholic Resource Center on Faith and Culture in Zambia, Available Online at: http://www.fenza.org/docs/ben/changing_face.pdf , Accessed on 15th April 2011.
[85] Cf., Karl H. PESCHKE, Christian Ethics, 309.
[86] Ibid., 309.
[87] Educating the Nation: Strategic Framework for Implementation of Education for All, 2005, 1.
[88] Cf., “The Church Today: Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World (Gaudium Et Spes)” in The Documents of the Vatican II, #63.
[89] Karl H. PESCHKE, Christian Ethics, 254-255.
[90] Cf., The Catechism of the Catholic Church, #s 2033-2034.
[91] Cf., Ibid., #2035.
[92] Cf., Ibid., #2040.
[93] Cf., MAY, William E., An Introduction to Moral Theology, 212.
[94] MAY, William E., An Introduction the Moral Theology,  216
[95] Cf., SHORTER, Alyward, Evangelization and Culture, London, Geoffrey Chapman, 1994, 7.
[96] Cf., Ibid., 28.
[97] Ibid., 32
[98] Cf., Ibid., 55ff
[99] Cf., JOHN PAUL II, Catechesis in Our Time (Catechesi Tradendae ): Apostolic Exhortation, Unites States of America, St. Paul Books, 1979, # 53.
[100] DUPUIS, JACQUES, ed., The Christian Faith: Doctrinal Documents of the Catholic Church, 6th Revised Edition, Bangalore, Theological Publications in India, 1996,  #1026.
[101] Cf., Ibid., #1034
[102] Cf., JOHN PAUL II, Catechesi Tradendae, #53.
[103] Cf., JOHN PAUL II, Catechesi Tradendae  #20
[104] Cf., Ibid., #14.
[105] Cf., “Communications: Decree on the Instruments of Social Communications (Inter Mirifica)” in The Documents of Vatican II, #s 11 &12.
[106] Cf., HARRING Bernard, Free and Faithful in Christ, Vol.2, 186.
[107] Cf., Ibid., 184
[108] Ibid., 186.
[109] “The Church Today: Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World (Gaudium Et Spes)” in The Documents of the Vatican II, #s 47-52.
[110] SMITH, Janet, E., “John Paul II and the Family: The Family; A Communion of Persons,” in A Celebration of the Thought of John Paul II: On the Occasion of the Papal Visit to St. Louis, edited by BEABOUT, Gregory R., St. Louis, Saint Louis University Press, 1998, 95.
[111] Cf., Ibid., 97.
[112] Cf., SHORTER, Alyward, Evangelization and Culture, 58.
[113] Cf., HARRING Bernard, Free and Faithful in Christ, Vol.2, 531.
[114] Cf., “The Church Today: Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World (Gaudium Et Spes)” in The Documents of the Vatican II, #48b.
[115] Cf., MUSHARHAMINA, Mulango Gua Cikala, Traditional African Marriages and Christian Marriages, Trans., BRAHOTTI, Joseph, Uganda, St. Paul Publications Africa, 1981, 81-84
[116] Cf., JOHN PAUL II, Fides et Ratio, Vatican City, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1998,  #29-32
[117] Message of the Amecea Bishops from the 7th Plenary Assembly in Zomba, Malawi, August 1979, # 2a, Available Online at: http://www.amecea.org/message-7.htm, Date Accessed: 28th March 2011.
[118] Ibid., #9.
[119] Cf., PESCHKE Karl H., Christian Ethics, 244.
[120] Cf., CARMODY, Brendan, P., Conversion and the Jesuit Schooling in Zambia, New York, E.J. Brill, 1992, 135-136.
[121] Cf., General Directory for Catechesis, Edited by the Congregation for the Clergy, Paulines Publications Africa, Nairobi, 1998, #73.
[122] Cf., Ibid., #74.
[123] Cf., O’CONNELL, Timothy, E., Principles for a Catholic Morality, San Francisco, Herder & Row Publishers, 1976, 200
[124] Cf., MAY William, E., An Introduction to Moral Theology, 73.
[125] Cf., O’CONNELL,Timothy, E., Principles for a Catholic Morality, 200.
[126] Cf., POPE BENEDICT XVI, Charity in Truth  (Caritatis in Veritate): Encyclical Letter on the Integral  Human Development, Paulines Publications Africa, Nairobi, 2009, #34.
[127] Ibid., # 45.
[128] Cf., Ibid., #49.

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